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PIRIMIDINESpgx

PIRIMIDINASpgx
Adequate response to 5-fluorouracil and its prodrugs treatment.
DNA test that studies genetic polymorphisms DPD gene for whether 5-Fluorouracil or its prodrugs: capecitabine and tegafur, will present toxicity in treatment. The American FDA and European EMA, warn that this drug is contraindicated in patients with D...
DNA test that studies genetic polymorphisms DPD gene for whether 5-Fluorouracil or its prodrugs: capecitabine and tegafur, will present toxicity in treatment. The American FDA and European EMA, warn that this drug is contraindicated in patients with DPD enzyme deficiency due to the risk of serious adverse effects.
386,00

Sample type:

Saliva

Delivery period:

30 - 40 days from sample receipt.
Last update of the document Jun, 10/06/2019 - 13:43

Pirimidines DNA test

5-FU, either directly or through one of its prodrugs capecitabine or tegafur, inhibits the enzyme thymidylate synthetase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of DNA, and to a lesser extent RNA.

The cells in division and growth have high requirements of nucleotides since they are necessary for the synthesis of messenger RNA (synthesis of proteins) and DNA (duplication of DNA). If these requirements can not be met, the balance between growth and cell death is altered in favor of the latter. Therefore, these drugs prevent cell replication of cells that are in the process of growth and proliferation, such as tumor cells, although it also affects other cells.

The prodrugs capecitabine and tegafur are transformed, through various reactions, into 5-fluorouracil, which can also be administered directly. 5-FU is a flurored analogue of the uracil nucleotide that inhibits the enzyme thymidylate synthetase (TS or TYMS) preventing the binding of its dUMP substrate.

The 5-FU is metabolized through several steps catalyzed by several enzymes of which the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD or DPYD) is responsible for the limiting step. The metabolism process of 5-FU generates inactive degradation products preventing the accumulation of cytotoxic agents in the organism.

Some patients have a genetic defect in the gene encoding DPD. Deficient patients for DPD enzyme have reduced elimination of 5-FU because it is affected a critical step. In these patients are observed very serious, potentially lethal, toxic effects, which are not expected in patients with normal DPD activity.

FDA and EMA warn that this drug is contraindicated in patients with DPD enzyme deficiency due to the risk of serious adverse effects. These contraindications are also extendable to tegafur and capecitabine.

Interpretation of the report in polytherapy

In this report, the "green" labeling of a certain drug with the patient's genes indicates that it can be prescribed in the standard dose conditions disclosed in the prospectus or those recommended by the physician. This applies in the case of monotherapy.

However, if the patient takes several medications, which is very common, although in the report would appear in "green" can cause adverse effects due to possible interactions between them, which can sometimes be severe, either by toxicity or by therapeutic failure.

Drugs are chemicals that may interfere the normal metabolism of other drugs. Interferences that are also applicable to the chemical substances of various medicinal plants and food supplements.

Consequently, the whole of the medication, together with the consumer products or life habits of the patient, must undergo an evaluation of pharmacological interactions.

Consulting g-Nomic® Pharmacogenetics interpretation software, before prescribing, is an effective aid to avoid most adverse effects or therapeutic failures due to medication.

g-Nomic® interrelates all drugs, herbs, nutritional supplements and lifestyle, with the patient's genes. It also advises the most appropriate dose to prescribe.

This text has been translated automatically using an electronic translator, so the Spanish version should prevail. Please check in case of doubt.

You will receive the sample collection kit. You can request additional kits if you need it.

Sample collection kit content:
You will get a box with sample collection kit. Within the kit you will find:

  1. Saliva collector.
  2. Instructions for the sample collection.
  3. Informed consent sheet and application form.
  4. Security bag to enter the sample for shipment.
  5. Envelope bag.

Process to follow:

  1. Follow the instructions for collecting the sample.
  2. After obtaining the sample, include it in the return envelope, remember to put into the informed consent sheet and the application form.
  3. No shipping costs on Spanish territory.
  4. An email confirmation will be sent when your sample si received.
  5. When the study will be completed you will receive a new e-mail to inform you that your report is already available in "My results".

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Profile Information

Pirimidines DNA test

5-FU, either directly or through one of its prodrugs capecitabine or tegafur, inhibits the enzyme thymidylate synthetase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of DNA, and to a lesser extent RNA.

The cells in division and growth have high requirements of nucleotides since they are necessary for the synthesis of messenger RNA (synthesis of proteins) and DNA (duplication of DNA). If these requirements can not be met, the balance between growth and cell death is altered in favor of the latter. Therefore, these drugs prevent cell replication of cells that are in the process of growth and proliferation, such as tumor cells, although it also affects other cells.

The prodrugs capecitabine and tegafur are transformed, through various reactions, into 5-fluorouracil, which can also be administered directly. 5-FU is a flurored analogue of the uracil nucleotide that inhibits the enzyme thymidylate synthetase (TS or TYMS) preventing the binding of its dUMP substrate.

The 5-FU is metabolized through several steps catalyzed by several enzymes of which the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD or DPYD) is responsible for the limiting step. The metabolism process of 5-FU generates inactive degradation products preventing the accumulation of cytotoxic agents in the organism.

Some patients have a genetic defect in the gene encoding DPD. Deficient patients for DPD enzyme have reduced elimination of 5-FU because it is affected a critical step. In these patients are observed very serious, potentially lethal, toxic effects, which are not expected in patients with normal DPD activity.

FDA and EMA warn that this drug is contraindicated in patients with DPD enzyme deficiency due to the risk of serious adverse effects. These contraindications are also extendable to tegafur and capecitabine.

Interpretation of the report in polytherapy

In this report, the "green" labeling of a certain drug with the patient's genes indicates that it can be prescribed in the standard dose conditions disclosed in the prospectus or those recommended by the physician. This applies in the case of monotherapy.

However, if the patient takes several medications, which is very common, although in the report would appear in "green" can cause adverse effects due to possible interactions between them, which can sometimes be severe, either by toxicity or by therapeutic failure.

Drugs are chemicals that may interfere the normal metabolism of other drugs. Interferences that are also applicable to the chemical substances of various medicinal plants and food supplements.

Consequently, the whole of the medication, together with the consumer products or life habits of the patient, must undergo an evaluation of pharmacological interactions.

Consulting g-Nomic® Pharmacogenetics interpretation software, before prescribing, is an effective aid to avoid most adverse effects or therapeutic failures due to medication.

g-Nomic® interrelates all drugs, herbs, nutritional supplements and lifestyle, with the patient's genes. It also advises the most appropriate dose to prescribe.

This text has been translated automatically using an electronic translator, so the Spanish version should prevail. Please check in case of doubt.

Sample type and process to follow

You will receive the sample collection kit. You can request additional kits if you need it.

Sample collection kit content:
You will get a box with sample collection kit. Within the kit you will find:

  1. Saliva collector.
  2. Instructions for the sample collection.
  3. Informed consent sheet and application form.
  4. Security bag to enter the sample for shipment.
  5. Envelope bag.

Process to follow:

  1. Follow the instructions for collecting the sample.
  2. After obtaining the sample, include it in the return envelope, remember to put into the informed consent sheet and the application form.
  3. No shipping costs on Spanish territory.
  4. An email confirmation will be sent when your sample si received.
  5. When the study will be completed you will receive a new e-mail to inform you that your report is already available in "My results".

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